Endive and Escarole (Cichorium endivia and C. intybos)
Germination Soil Temp:
Days to Germinate
Date to sow Indoors:
Date to sow Outdoors
60 - 65 Degrees
5 - 7
8 weeks before frost
Stagger planting every 2 weeks from Spring until Fall:
March - April, September - Frost
5.5 - 7.0
45 - 65 Degrees
8 - 10 inches
Full sun, some shade
Moderate N, P and K
Avoid other lettuces
4 - 6 years
Endive and escarole are actually different forms of chicory. Endive has curly, crinkled leaves and a slightly bitter taste. Escarole has a milder flavor and flatter, thicker leaves. Both are great plants for the winter garden.
Endive and escarole do well if planted in a fertile soil and is watered as needed.
The faster lettuce grows, the sweeter the taste. To encourage growth, use compost or add a balanced fertilizer and water. However keep in mind that too much nutrition can cause a bitter taste.
Directly sow tiny seeds in rows (use a stick or board as a guide) or grow in containers. Cover lightly with 1/4 inch of soil and water with a breaker to keep seeds from splashing.
To keep plants growing, water evenly when the top soil dries and withhold water as the ground begins to freeze.
Radish, strawberries, beets, broccoli, bush and pole beans, carrots, cucumber and onion
Endive: Belgian, Radicchio and Puntarelle
Escarole: Full Heart Batavium and Twinkle
Harvest outer leaves as needed; leaves should be eaten fresh. The roots can be harvested and forced in a root cellar.
Endives and escaroles are rich in vitamins such as folic acid and vitamins A and K. They are higher in fiber than lettuce.
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Source: UT Extension, PB1578 - Tennessee Master Gardener Handbook